Audio Production Notes

Audio Loudness Level

There are a few different factors to consider when determining the recommended loudness settings for audio sampling:

In general, it is recommended to aim for a target loudness of around -14 LUFS for audio that will be streamed or played back on consumer devices, and to leave enough headroom (typically around 3-6 dB) to allow for loudness normalization. It is also important to ensure that the audio does not exceed the maximum peak level for the intended format, and to consider the desired dynamic range for the audio.

For example For 24-bit 48kHz audio in the WAV file format, the higher bit depth will provide more headroom and allow for a greater dynamic range, but you should still be mindful of any specific requirements or guidelines for the intended use of the audio. It is also important to leave enough headroom (typically around 3-6 dB) to allow for loudness normalisation.

EQ Tips for Vocal

The various frequency ranges that can be found in a vocal recording and how they can be manipulated through boosting or cutting. The author mentions that frequencies below 100 Hz give a deep, rumbling quality to a voice. The importance of the frequency range around 200 Hz for adding warmth and body to a vocal recording. The effects of boosting or cutting this frequency range may vary depending on the specific voice being worked on. Frequencies between 300 and 500 Hz can make a vocal sound boxy or honky. They note that frequencies between 1.5 and 2.5 K add presence to a vocal, while frequencies between 2.5 and 3.5 K contribute to nasality. The writer also mentions that 4 K is an important frequency for intelligibility and clarity, while 6 K contributes to the clarity of a vocal. Finally, the writer notes that frequencies between 7 and 10 K are important for the top end of a vocal, while frequencies above 16 K contribute to the overall brightness and air of a recording.


A Comprehensive List of MIDI CC (Control Change) Messages for Your Reference

0: Bank Select

1: Modulation

2: Breath Controller

4: Foot Controller

5: Portamento Time

6: Data Entry MSB

7: Volume

8: Balance

10: Pan

64: Sustain Pedal

65: Portamento

66: Sostenuto

67: Soft Pedal

68: Legato Footswitch

84: Portamento Control

91: Reverb Send Level

92: Tremolo Depth

93: Chorus Send Level

94: Celeste/Detune Depth

95: Phaser Depth

96: Data Increment

97: Data Decrement



100: RPN LSB

101: RPN MSB

120: All Sound Off

121: Reset All Controllers

122: Local Control On/Off

123: All Notes Off

124: Omni Mode Off

125: Omni Mode On

126: Mono Mode On (Poly Off)

127: Poly Mode On (Mono Off)